GRE (Graduate Record Examination)


What is GRE?

The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is administered by the Educational Testing Services. GRE is a standardized test that is required to be taken by students seeking admission in any of the graduate schools.

It is a test to evaluate skills of the aspirants. The GRE has been developed to evaluate the verbal, analytical and mathematical skills of the candidates.

Students seeking admission into any Masters Program in the US and many other European countries are required to take GRE. Individuals applying to graduate schools in order to pursue a Masters in Arts (MA) or Science (MS) are required to take the GRE (Graduate Record Examination).

♦ Eligibility Criteria for GRE ♦


1) A Bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for seeking admission in any Masters Program in US and therefore, it is also an essential qualification for taking GRE.

2) Most US Universities have made it mandatory for a student to complete 16 years of education for admission to Science and Engineering programs.

However students holding BE, B. Tech, B. Sc (Agriculture) or B.Arch degrees, i.e. students who have spent four years for their Bachelor’s degree can directly seek admission in Science and Engineering program in any US University.

♦ Commencement of Exam ♦


Computer-based GRE Revised General Test is given year round at computer-based test centres. Appointments are scheduled on a first come first serve basis.


You can take the GRE Revised General Test (Computer based test and paper based test) once in every 60 daysand not more than five times within 12 months period. If you choose to take only the paper based GRE Revised General Test, you may take it as often as it is offered.


♦ What’s on the Test 


The questions on the GRE revised General Test are based on the kind of thinking you’ll do, and the skills you’ll need to succeed ,in today’s demanding graduate and business school programs.

♦ The Verbal Reasoning section 


The Verbal Reasoning section measures your ability to understand what you’ve read and how you apply your reasoning skills , The Verbal Reasoning measure of the GRE revised General Test assesses your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize information obtained from it, analyze relationships among component parts of sentences and recognize relationships among words and concepts.


The Verbal Reasoning measure contains three types of questions.

  • Reading Comprehension Questions
  • Text Completion Questions
  • Sentence Equivalence Questions

Reading Comprehension Questions:

Reading Comprehension questions are designed to test a wide range of abilities that are required in order to read and understand the kinds of prose commonly encountered in graduate school. Those abilities include:

  • Understanding the meaning of individual words and sentences
  • Understanding the meaning of paragraphs and larger bodies of text
  • Distinguishing between minor and major points
  • Summarizing a passage
  • Drawing conclusions from the information provided
  • Reasoning from incomplete data to infer missing information
  • Understanding the structure of a text in terms of how the parts relate to one another
  • Identifying the author’s assumptions and perspective
  • Analyzing a text and reaching conclusions about it
  • Identifying strengths and weaknesses of a position
  • Developing and considering alternative explanations

As this list implies, reading and understanding a piece of text requires far more than a passive understanding of the words and sentences it contains; it requires active engagement with the text, asking questions, formulating and evaluating hypotheses and reflecting on the relationship of the particular text to other texts and information.

Each Reading Comprehension question is based on a passage that may range in length from one paragraph to several paragraphs. The test contains approximately 10 passages, the majority of which are one paragraph in length and only one or two of which are several paragraphs long. Passages are drawn from the physical sciences, biological sciences, social sciences, business, arts and humanities and everyday topics and are based on material found in books and periodicals, both academic and nonacademic.

Typically, about half of the questions on the test will be based on passages, and the number of questions based on a given passage can range from one to six. Questions can cover any of the topics listed above, from the meaning of a particular word to assessing evidence that might support or weaken points made in the passage. Many, but not all, of the questions are standard multiple-choice questions, in which you are required to select a single correct answer; others ask you to select multiple correct answers; and still others ask you to select a sentence from the passage.

Text Completion Questions:

Skilled readers do not simply absorb the information presented on the page; instead, they maintain a constant attitude of interpretation and evaluation, reasoning from what they have read so far to create a picture of the whole and revising that picture as they go. Text Completion questions test this ability by omitting crucial words from short passages and asking the test taker to use the remaining information in the passage as a basis for selecting words or short phrases to fill the blanks and create a coherent, meaningful whole.

Question Structure:

These questions include a passage composed of one to five sentences with one to three blanks. There are three answer choices per blank, or five answer choices if there is a single blank.

Sentence Equivalence Questions:

Like Text Completion questions, Sentence Equivalence questions test the ability to reach a conclusion about how a passage should be completed on the basis of partial information, but to a greater extent they focus on the meaning of the completed whole. Sentence Equivalence questions consist of a single sentence with just one blank, and they ask you to find two choices that lead to a complete, coherent sentence while producing sentences that mean the same thing.

Question Structure:

These questions consist of a single sentence, one blank, and six answer choices. These questions require you to select two of the answer choices. You receive no credit for partially correct answers.

 ♦The Quantitative Reasoning section 


The Quantitative Reasoning section measures how well you interpret and analyze quantitative information. You’ll need to have an understanding of basic math concepts (arithmetic, algebra, geometry and data analysis). And there’s an increased emphasis on data interpretation and real-life scenarios. In this section, you may use the on-screen calculator.

The skills, concepts and abilities are tested in the four content areas below:

Arithmetic topics : Include properties and types of integers, such as divisibility, factorization, prime numbers, remainders and odd and even integers; arithmetic operations, exponents and roots; and concepts such as estimation, percent, ratio, rate, absolute value, the number line, decimal representation and sequences of numbers.

Algebra topics: Include operations with exponents; factoring and simplifying algebraic expressions; relations, functions, equations and inequalities; solving linear and quadratic equations and inequalities; solving simultaneous equations and inequalities; setting up equations to solve word problems; and coordinate geometry, including graphs of functions, equations and inequalities, intercepts and slopes of lines.

Geometry topics: Include parallel and perpendicular lines, circles, triangles — including isosceles, equilateral and 30°-60°-90° triangles — quadrilaterals, other polygons, congruent and similar figures, three-dimensional figures, area, perimeter, volume, the Pythagorean theorem and angle measurement in degrees. The ability to construct proofs is not tested.

Data analysis topics: Include basic descriptive statistics, such as mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, interquartile range, quartiles and percentiles; interpretation of data in tables and graphs, such as line graphs, bar graphs, circle graphs, boxplots, scatterplots and frequency distributions; elementary probability, such as probabilities of compound events and independent events; random variables and probability distributions, including normal distributions; and counting methods, such as combinations, permutations and Venn diagrams. These topics are typically taught in high school algebra courses or introductory statistics courses. Inferential statistics is not tested.

Question Structure 

  • Multiple-choice Questions — Select One Answer
  • These questions are multiple-choice questions that ask you to select only one answer choice from a list of five choices.
  • Multiple-choice Questions — Select One or More Answer Choices
  • These questions are multiple-choice questions that ask you to select one or more answer choices from a list of choices. A question may or may not specify the number of choices to select.
  • Numeric Entry questions require you to enter your answer in a box instead of selecting an answer from a list.
  • Quantitative Comparison questions ask you to compare two quantities and then choose the statement from a list that most accurately describes the comparison.

 ♦ Analytical Writing section ♦


The Analytical Writing measure tests your critical thinking and analytical writing skills. It assesses your ability to articulate and support complex ideas, construct and evaluate arguments, and sustain a focused and coherent discussion. It does not assess specific content knowledge.

The Analytical Writing measure consists of two separately timed analytical writing tasks:

  • A 30-minute “Analyze an Issue” task
  • A 30-minute “Analyze an Argument” task

The Issue task presents an opinion on an issue of general interest followed by specific instructions on how to respond to that issue. You are required to evaluate the issue, consider its complexities and develop an argument with reasons and examples to support your views.

The Argument task requires you to evaluate a given argument according to specific instructions. You will need to consider the logical soundness of the argument rather than agree or disagree with the position it presents.

Your responses will be evaluated on whether you can integrate critical thinking and analytical writing by fully addressing the tasks you’re presented.

♦  UnScored sections ♦


An unidentified, unscored Verbal Reasoning or Quantitative Reasoning section may be included on the computer-delivered test. This section may appear in any order after the Analytical Writing section and doesn’t count as part of your score.

Questions in the unscored section are being tried out either for possible use in future tests or to ensure that scores on new editions of the test are comparable to scores on earlier editions. The Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning and unidentified/unscored sections may appear in any order; therefore, you should treat each section as if it counts toward your score.

An identified research section may be included in place of the unscored section. The questions for the research section are for ETS research purposes and don’t count as part of your score. This section will always appear at the end of the test.

Register for the Computer-delivered GRE revised General Test:

The GRE revised General Test is offered year-round as a computer-delivered test in most locations around the world. Appointments are scheduled on a first-come, first-served basis. Register early to get your preferred test date and test location.

Here is the link where you can go ahead with the registration process:

♦ Important FAQ’s about GRE ♦


1) What is the price of the test?

GRE revised General Test — worldwide : $195
Rescheduling fee : $50
Changing your test center : $50

2) Will I see my scores at the test center when I take the computer-delivered test?

After completing the computer-delivered GRE revised General Test, you will be given the opportunity to Report or Cancel your scores. If you choose Report Scores, you will see your unofficial scores for the Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning measures at the test center. Because of the Analytical Writing essay scoring process, you will not be able to view your Analytical Writing score at the testing center.

Although you have the option to cancel your scores, consider very carefully before doing so because the score reporting choices available with the ScoreSelect® option allow you to report only the scores you feel reflect your personal best. If you cancel your scores, neither you nor any schools will ever see them and they will not be part of your reportable history. If you select to report your scores, you will view your unofficial scores on the screen and the score will become a part of your reportable history.

Your official scores will be available in your My GRE Account and sent to your score recipients approximately 10–15 days after your test date.

3) What scores are reported?

Three scores are reported on the GRE revised General Test:

  • A Verbal Reasoning score is reported on a 130–170 score scale, in 1-point increments.
  • A Quantitative Reasoning score is reported on a 130–170 score scale, in 1-point increments.
  • An Analytical Writing score is reported on a 0–6 score level, in half-point increments.

4) How do I send my scores to an institution?

Your test fee entitles you to request that scores be sent to as many as four graduate institutions or fellowship sponsors at no additional cost.

For the computer-delivered GRE revised General Test, you will be asked to designate your score recipients at the test center or you can choose not to report your scores at that time.

5) When will my official scores be reported after testing?

The computer-delivered GRE revised General Test, your official scores will be available in your My GRE account and sent to the institutions you designated approximately 10–15 days after your test date.

6) Can I view my scores online?

Yes. Once your official scores are reported, you will receive an email from ETS indicating you can view your scores online free of charge through your My GRE Account.

7) How long are GRE scores valid?

GRE scores are valid for five years after the testing year in which you tested

8) How often can I take the computer-based General Test?

ou may take the CBT once per calendar month. This is true even if you canceled your scores on a previous CBT taken within the same month.

9) How important are my GRE scores?

Schools vary tremendously in the weights they place on the different factors in the admissions process, so be sure to contact the specific schools to which you are applying in order to determine their unique requirements. Some programs weight GRE scores very heavily, and/or have a minimum score for applicants, while other programs consider GRE scores more of a formality. It is important to note that your GRE score is a major factor in determining your eligibility for financial aid.

10) Can I cancel my scores?

Yes. You can cancel your scores immediately after you take the GRE test. This is the only time you can cancel your scores. Unfortunately, you must make the decision to cancel at the testing center before you see your scores. In addition, the fact that you cancelled your scores will be noted on your official GRE score report.

11) How do I order additional score reports?

There are three easy ways to order ASRs: online, by mail or by fax.For more information on fees and options check with

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IELTS  (International English Language Testing System )


What is IELTS?

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses the English language proficiency of people who want to study or work where English is used as the language of communication. IELTS tests are held in over 900 locations across the world with tests up to four times a month …

IELTS tests all four language skills – listening, reading, writing and speaking. The IELTS Speaking test is a face-to-face interview with a certified Examiner. It is interactive and as close to a real-life situation as a test can get …

The IELTS nine (9) band score system grades scores consistently. It is secure, benchmarked and understood worldwide. Test materials are designed carefully so that every version of the test is of a comparable level of difficulty …An applicant’s capabilities are tested in this exam on a scale of 9, known as bands. It means that if a student gets 1. It implies no knowledge, whereas 9 on the scale connote an expert in the language. No minimum score is set as a passing mark in the test. Different institutions maintain different parameters for selection. Institutes are apprised not to consider scores older than two years unless a student proves that he/she has been working to improve his/ her levels.


How much does it cost?

9000 Rs – 10,000 Rs

♦ IELTS Reading Section ♦


This section is different for the general and the academic tests. This lasts for 60 minutes and asks around 40 questions. The academic section includes journals, newspaper articles, magazine articles, etc., Each article presents a detailed logical argument.

The general section, on the other hand, can include advertisements, notices, booklets, passages, etc., which focus on day-to-day survival and general reading. The comprehension passages can depend on a variety of topics, as general as dung beetles or something like newspaper production process.

The kind of questions asked in the general and the academic variant are the same.They are:

  • Multiple choice questions
  • Fill-in-the-gaps questions
  • Short answer questions
  • Matching questions
  • True/ False/Not Given questions


Reading is considered to be the most difficult section of all. Most of the times, applicants have problems in understanding the contents of the passage or evaluating the relationship between different subjects in the passage.

In the academic module, the passages are lengthy and difficult to crack as compared to the general module.

It is generally believed that the first passage is easier than the second, and the third. But, sometimes even this doesn’t hold true. Thus, it makes good sense to take an overview of the subject matter of the passages and then decide on the strategy to solve the passages. These strategies can be a banal one as the skim-and-scan method, or a legitimate method like intensive reading.

Skimming the passage means just reading the main headlines and the first few lines of each paragraph. This also involves noticing the repetition of the words in each paragraph. The main purpose is to get the crux of the passage.

Intensive reading, on the contrary involves reading each and every sentence of the passage carefully, underlining what’s important and trying to deduce the meaning by the means of this consistent process.

Selection of a strategy out of these two depends thoroughly upon the difficulty level of the comprehension passage. Thus, it’s important to:

  • Evaluate the relationship between various subjects,
  • Trying to find the meaning of difficult words by relating it to the rest of the sentence and while doing all this,
  • Be well defined within the time limits.

>Be extremely careful with spellings. Those are the silliest of mistakes you can make.

  • Don’t leave any question unanswered as there is no negative marking. But remember not to cling on to one question as it will waste your precious time. Leave a question if you are stuck and return to it when you are done with the rest of your exam.
  • Write your answers directly on transfer sheets as no extra time is given to materialize this process.

♦ IELTS Listening Section ♦


This is the first section in the IELTS examination. In this test, applicants are made to hear a tape and they have to answer questions based on that. The duration for this section is 40-45 minutes. The tape is a pre-recorded one and is played only once, with pauses wherever required. Applicants are provided with question sheets where they have to write their answers. In the last 10 minutes, they are required to transfer their answers to the answer sheets.

There are a total of 3-4 sections, which adds up to 40 questions. The following can be the probable conversations:

  • Section 1: Two speakers conversing about a social/semi official topic.
  • Section 2: One speaker talking about any social or non-academic topic, also known as a monologue.
  • Section 3: Two to four speakers conversing about an academic topic.
  • Section 4: Single speaker making a university style presentation about an academic topic/news item.


The cassette shall start by an announcer who will introduce the situation to you. The next 30 seconds involve going through the questions so that you know on which information to concentrate once the tape starts playing.

Following things should be taken care of in order to qualify this module in flying colors:

  • You should read and listen to the instructions carefully.
  • Try to guess the requisite answers while you are reading the questions, and underline important words from the text.
  • You should make sure that you continue to listen to the conversation while you’re writing the answers.
  • You should try and stay ahead of the recording so that you know the questions asked and are able to extract the essential points.

♦ IELTS Writing Section ♦


This section tests your writing skills. The writing skills are tested through the following areas:

  • Handwriting which is legible
  • Proper presentation and organization
  • Grammatically correct sentences are formed
  • Effective use of vocabulary

The section has duration of 60 minutes. The following are the tasks included in the module:

  • Academic (essay and graph)
  • General (essay and letter)

It comprises of two tasks:

Task 1: Different for Academic & General.

  • Word Limit: 150-180 words. Duration: 20 minutes

Academic: it usually asks you to describe and interpret a graph or a chart in your own words. You are usually asked to describe and interpret a graph or a chart in your own words.

General: candidates are asked to write a letter describing a situation.

Task 2: Same for Academic & General. (Topics are different)

The essays can be an agree/disagree one, wherein the candidate has to agree or disagree with a thought as given.
Or it can be a comment/opinion one. Here, you are required to examine both the negative and the positive sides of the issue and give reasons for your leanings towards one of them.

  • Word Limit: 250-280 words. Duration: 40 minutes

The writing section is one section which demands the most of your attention and the intricacies of your intelligence. It should start with reading the tasks carefully.

After you are done reading the tasks, decide how you plan to approach the task and what elements are you going to include in your answers. Reading and planning should not exceed 5 minutes.

After you are done planning, proceed with the writing part. Remember not to repeat the question in what you write. In Task 1, writing should take about 10 minutes, whereas in Task 2, this should extend to about 25 minutes.

After you are done with the whole thing, check your thoughts. Checking should take maximum five minutes in both the tasks. Even if you can’t complete Task 1 in the designated time limit, move on to Task 2 as it will fetch you more marks.


  • Do a brain storming session, note down all the important points.
  • Divide the essay clearly into paragraphs.
  • Frame an organized map of the essay as you are going to approach it.
  • Try giving examples, as per your personal experiences and knowledge.
  • Use simple words and stick to the original topic.

♦ IELTS Speaking Section ♦


The speaking test is basically an interview session. It tests a candidate’s composure and ability to speak proficiently. It consists of the following parts:

PART 1 : Introduction and interview (4 to 5 minutes)

The interviewer invites you to sit down,and your ID is checked. General questions about your life, background, family etc., are asked so that you feel relaxed and find it easy to settle down. This is done to basically test the body language of the candidate. It also helps in maintaining a particular rapport between the interviewer and the interviewee.

PART 2 : (3 to 4 minutes)

You are provided a card with a topic written on it, you get one minute to think about the topic and get prepared for what you have to say. After you are done with speaking on your topic, the examiner could ask some follow-up questions. This, again, tests your composure.

PART 3: (4 to 5 minutes)

This is a discussion wherein you have to engage yourself with the examiner about the similar general themes as discussed in Part 2.
The whole session would be recorded in an audio device to ensure that the whole process was accountable and up-to-the mark.


  • Never use ‘NO’ for an answer.
  • Keep your answers short and crisp. But, they should not sound inadequate.
  • In the cue card session, don’t stop until you are asked to.
  • Speak clearly, as your voice would be recorded in an audio device to ensure that the interview has taken place in a correct manner.
  • If you are making a grammatical error somewhere, do not hesitate to correct it immediately.
  • Proper body language is the key to success in this session. Good eye contact, minimum hand movements and appropriate body posture are all indications of a good body language.
  • Do not let your calm lose even till the end of the interview. Do not rush out of the room.




1) What is the cost or registration fee of the IELTS test?

The total Exam cost along with Registration fee ranges from US$ 115 to US$145 depending on the country you are giving they exam from. In India the current cost for the exam is Rs. 9500

2) How often can I take the IELTS test?

Candidates may re-sit for IELTS at any time. There is no restriction and they can repeat the test whenever they wish.

3) How and when will I get my IELTS results?

The results are usually declared in 13-15 days after the test date. Results are first published on the IELTS website followed by the mark sheet being sent via mail.

4) How long is an IELTS score valid?

The IELTS score is valid for two years, after which the student is required to give the IELTS test again.

5) What are the necessary things required to carry on the day of the IELTS test?

Candidates must carry their passport, hall ticket and relevant stationery for the test modules. In case you have registered online, then do not forget to carry a recent and color passport-sized photograph

6) Can I check my results online?

You can check your results online on the 13th day after your test (this is always a Friday) from around 10am on wards. You will need to provide the following information to access your results:

  • Test date
  • Date of birth
  • ID document number
  • Candidate number (given to you during registration on Saturday morning)

7) What is the score preferred by universities?

For Masters courses, a minimum of 6.5 is required. For a Graduate course, a band of 6 may be accepted; every institute would have its individual requirement.

8) The nine bands and their descriptive statements ?

9: Expert User
8: Very Good User
7: Good User
6: Competent User
5: Modest User
4: Limited User
3: Extremely Limited User
2: Intermittent User
1: Non-User

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TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language)


What is TOEFL?


TOEFL is the Test of English as a Foreign Language is a test that assesses the capability of an individual to understand English in an academic context. The major purpose of TOEFL test is to measure the ability of innovative speakers of English to use and understand English as it is spoken, written, and heard in an American college/university.

The TOEFL tests all four language skills that are important for effective communication: reading, listening, speaking and writing. It helps students demonstrate that they have the English skills needed for academic success. More than 5,200 colleges and universities worldwide require this test as part of your application.

The test is designed to evaluate your mastery of the English language and your ability to be successful in an English-speaking academic environment. Each year, more than half a million students take the TOEFL test, primarily for the purpose of attending graduate school. The TOEFL is also used by undergraduate institutions and by several government agencies and other organizations for professional certification.

TOEFL Test Fee

The TOEFL test fee is US$165

TOEFL Results

The candidates get the TOEFL results in 13 days after the test.

♦ TOEFL Exam Pattern ♦


The TOEFL iBT consists of four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing.The entire test is about four hours long and all sections are taken on the same day.The duration of the test is 4 hours.

  • The TOEFL iBT is administered via computer from a secure Internet-based testing network.
  • Instructions for answering questions are given within each section. There is no computer tutorial.
  • TOEFL iBT is not computer-adaptive. Each test taker receives items that cover the full range of ability.
  • Test takers can take notes throughout the entire test. At the end of testing, all notes are collected and destroyed at the test center to ensure test security.
  • For the Speaking section, test takers wear noise-cancelling headphones and speak into a microphone. Responses are digitally recorded and sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network.
  • For the Writing section, test takers must type their responses. The typed responses are sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network.
  • Human raters, trained and certified by ETS, rate the Speaking and Writing responses.

♦ TOEFL Reading Section ♦


The reading section assesses a student’s capability to understand texts and passages which are affiliated to a university level. A student’s basic tasks, once he/she enters a university are to read and comprehend his textbooks and other sources. The reading section fulfils this requirement and more.

It helps a student in reading and sieving the most useful information.

  • Increased skills and eloquence in reading,
  • Deducing the crux of the given passage
  • Translate the relationship between the many ideas.

The reading section uses passages extracted from university-level textbooks which introduce a discipline or a topic. The passages can:

  • Provide explanation about a topic
  • Provide a point of view about a topic and supporting evidence
  • A passage that is historical in nature.

Question Formats :

Simple multiple choice questions, with four options and a correct option.

Questions with four options and a single answer which requires the students to insert a sentence where it fits appropriately in the passage.

“Reading to learn” questions with more than four choices and more than one appropriate correct answer. These questions are new in the format and test the applicant’s capability to understand the organization of the passage and assess the relationship between facts and ideas in the passage. These questions require the applicants to screen information and place the text options available in into a category chart or a summary.

The summary questions carry upto 2 marks each. In these questions, a sentence is provided as a start to the summary and the rest of the portion is selected by the reader in the correct sequence.

The chart questions are up to 3 points if there are five options presented and up to 4 points when there are seven options. Partial credit is provided in this format.


  • While reading the text, highlight important points, ideas, facts and other relevant information.
  • Improving vocabulary can help greatly.
  • For an initial idea, try skimming the passage. This means to read the headings and sub-headings in order to get a basic idea of the passage.
  • If there are some unfamiliar words in the passage, don’t panic. Try guessing their meaning through contextualizing it with the rest of the passage.

♦ TOEFL Listening Section ♦


Listening section of the test measures an applicant’s capability to comprehend spoken English. In an academic setting, students are expected to listen to lectures and make sense out of those. This section helps students to achieve the same along with:

  • Identify a speaker’s attitude and his/her function and purpose.
  • Establish relationship between ideas present and drawing a coherent conclusion.
  • Acknowledge the organization of the passage.

The lectures in the TOEFL iBT are similar to the kind of environment usually prevalent in a conventional classroom. In some of the lectures the professor does all the talking, whereas in some others he encourages interaction from the students.

Question Formats :

After the listening matter is played, applicants both see and hear the question before the answer choices are shown. There are four kinds of formats in this section:

  • Traditional multiple-choice questions with four choices and a correct answer
  • Multiple choice questions with more than two correct answers
  • Questions where the test takers order steps or events in a process.
  • Questions where objects and texts are matched to categories in a chart.


  • Focus on the content. Do not pay attention to the speaker’s style or accent.
  • Make notes on the important points said by the speaker.
  • Stay focused and active. Don’t lose concentration.

♦ TOEFL Speaking Section ♦


This section quantifies a student’s ability to communicate effectively in a classroom. It also ensures that the students respond to questions and participates in class discussions.

As described in the test format, the speaking section consists of a total of six tasks- two independent and four integrated tasks.

As per the independent task, the students are made to express their opinions, ideas, arguments or experiences for a topic they are familiar with.

The other four integrated tasks require the applicants to make use of more than one skill. That is, firstly, they read and listen, and then they speak in response. In the process they take notes and use these notes while responding.


  • Practice speaking about topics familiar to you.
  • In integrated tasks, notice the tone and attitude of the speaker and try guessing his inclinations.
  • Take care of your pronunciation and grammar.
  • Don’t speak too fast. Be clear and audible.
  • Check all your audio and video equipment’s carefully.
  • Practice through sample tests and other resource material available online.

♦ TOEFL Writing Section ♦


A teacher expects his students to be fully able to express their ideas in a fluent and a well-organized manner, in an academic setting. This section tests the same, in the test-takers along with several other things.

  • Planning and organizing an essay.
  • Expressing your views/opinions in an organized manner
  • .Use correct grammar and appropriate vocabulary to bring home your views/opinions.
  • To make sure you are spelling the words right and following all the rules of punctuation.


  • Increase vocabulary and practice the use of idioms.
  • Concentrate on grammatical formations, spellings and punctuation.
  • Organize your article in a proper manner.



1) What books can I buy to study for the TOEFL?

For the TOEFL, you can refer to the Barrons and Kaplan books as well as

2) Is the IELTS and the TOEFL the same?

Both TOEFL and IELTS are English proficiency tests required to be taken by all international students. Both the exams have speaking, reading, writing and listening sections. However, US universities prefer the TOEFL whereas UK universities prefer IELTS.

3) What is the cost-registration fee for the TOEFL?

The course cost and registration fee depends on your test location. Usually, the cost ranges from US$ 160 to US$ 250. For India the current cost for the TOEFL Exam is US$ 165.

4) How do I register for the TOEFL?

The registration can be done via phone, by mail or you can also register online. For detailed information on registration log onto

5) What is the Evaluation Score for the TOEFL test?

The students appearing for the test will be given scores between the ranges 0-30. There are four sections (Reading, Listening, Writing and Speaking) in total and they are clubbed together to give students an overall rating out of 120. Students receive a score card with detailed feedback on the overall performance. The average score needed for most Universities is between 80 & 90.

6) How many times in a year is the TOEFL test held?

TOEFL iBT is conducted on specific dates, more than 50 times a year across multiple centers in India. There are at least 2 test dates available per month at every TOEFL test Center. Some locations, which have a high demand, conduct up to 8 tests per month.

7) Can I reappear for the test? If yes, then how many times?

Yes, one can reappear for the test if you are not satisfied with the scores. There is no limit on the number of times you can appear for the test. However you cannot take it more than once in a 12 days of your existing appointment.

8) How and when do I get my scores?

Scores are posted online approximately 13 days after the test date. Every student is provided with ID and log in using which you can check your scores online

9) What is the minimum score required to clear the TOEFL test?

The scores are evaluated on a scale of 0-30 for every skill where scores ranging between 0-14 is considered low, score between 15-21 is considered as intermediate and score between 22-30 is considered high. The TOEFL score requirement is set by the University and can vary for each University.

10) What is the validity of the test scores?

The TOEFL test score is valid for two years from the date of result declaration.

11) Can I order additional score reports?

Yes you can, for a fee. Keep in mind that your registration fee covers the cost of sending up to four official score reports to the universities, institutions or agencies you select before you test.

12) If I take the TOEFL more than once, which score will be considered by the universities?

Almost all the universities take the best score.

13) Do I need to have the TOEFL score at the time of applying to universities?

No, you do not need to have the TOEFL® score with you at the time of applying. But you are required to take the TOEFL® before the deadline of the university.

14) What is the minimum TOEFL score that I need?

For admission, one has to score over 80 for MS and undergrad programs, over 100 for PhD and MBA courses. Usually a score of 100 is required for students who are looking for Financial aid/scholarships.

15) How do I pass on my score to the college?

The universities only accept official scores sent directly by ETS. Scores to four colleges can be sent free of cost from the time of TOEFL registration to 24 hours before the test date. Subsequently, for each score report sent to a college, you would have to pay $18.


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GMAT – Graduate Management Admission Test 


What is GMAT?

GMAT or the Graduate Management Admission Test was created by business schools to measure the skills necessary for a graduate student to succeed in MBA programmes. It is a computer-adaptive standardised test in Maths and English to check your aptitude for business studies. Studies show that this test is the best indicator for success in such programs, and as a result about 4000 programmes in 1800 graduate schools around the world use this test for admission decisions. If you want to get into a Graduate Managerial Program, you need to score well in GMAT.

Pursuing an MBA from abroad can give you an edge. But to get yourself enrolled in a renowned US or UK university you will have to clear GMAT. Also TOEFL Test.

Business schools use and trust the GMAT exam to make admissions decisions. The GMAT exam – created by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), the global non-profit council of business schools – sets the standard for its ability to predict success in the classroom.

Consider these additional advantages:

– The GMAT exam measures the skills you have and the skills schools need. Showcase the skills that matter most, to schools and businesses , with the GMAT exam’s unique Integrated Reasoning section.

– A proven measure of your success. Decades of research confirm that the GMAT exam is a valid and reliable predictor of your academic performance in today’s graduate management programs.

– The GMAT exam is relied on more by graduate business schools worldwide. The GMAT exam works for you and them and is accepted by more programs and schools than any other individual graduate management school exam.

– The GMAT exam is available when you’re ready to take it. Testing is available around the world in state-of-the-art facilities designed to provide an unparalleled test-taking experience so that you can perform your best.

Format and Timing

On test day, you have three and a half hours to complete the four sections of the GMAT exam – Analytical Writing Assessment, Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, and Verbal.

Analytical Writing Assessment

The Analytical Writing section has one essay writing task: the Argument.

The Argument task presents a statement of a position. The candidate is required to analyze the logic of the given position and suggest how and where the reasoning may be faulty or require improvement. The student is given 30 minutes for this essay.

The scoring for the Analytical Writing section is on a scale of 0-6. The essay is scored by a human reader and then by a computer program (which the official GMAT website,, refers to as an automated essay-scoring engine). If the human and computer scores differ significantly, the score is sent to a second expert reader for final evaluation.

Integrated Reasoning

The Integrated Reasoning section has 12 questions to be solved in 30 minutes. The score is reported on a scale of 1-8

The questions involve interpretation of tabular, graphical and written information from a variety of sources. Each question is independent and may have more than one part, but one prompt may be used for more than one question. An on-screen calculator is available.

Quantitative Section

The Quantitative section has two types of multiple choice questions: data sufficiency and problem solving.

There are 37 questions to be solved in 75 minutes. The level of math knowledge should be within the grasp of an 11th Grade student. However, the level of reasoning required is quite high. No calculators are allowed.

Verbal Reasoning

The Verbal Reasoning section contains three types of question: critical reasoning; reading comprehension; sentence correction. All questions are multiple-choice.

There are 41 questions to be completed in 75 minutes.

GMAT Scores

The maximum scaled score for the test is 800: verbal and quantitative sections are each worth 800 points. The final score is an average of these two scores.

The student can get the results at the test center immediately after the GMAT-CAT. This is not an official score as the results of the writing section come later. The writing mark (on 6) is reported along with the score, but is not included in the score for the other sections. The Integrated Reasoning is reported on a scale of 1-8 (intervals of 1). As for the AWA, the score is separate from the quantitative and verbal score.

GMAT scores are valid for five years, although some business schools might insist on a recent score.

What is a good GMAT score?

– The average score for GMAT test takers over the last few years is somewhere in the high 500

– A good score would be over 600

– A very good score is one which crosses the 700 mark

As a rough guide, a score of 600 indicates a percentile ranking of about 70; a score of 700 approximates to the 90 percentile. (The percentile rank indicates the percentage of people taking the test who performed worse than you.) The average (mean and/or median) scores for students admitted to the 50 top ranking MBA programs is apparently 660.

Note that as well as an overall score and a percentile, the test report includes the scores and percentiles for both the verbal and quantitative sections of the test. Sometimes a student composite score looks very good, but shows a great disparity between the verbal and quant sections this is unlikely to go down well with the admissions committees.

One thing is certain: the scores of those admitted to B-schools have been rising in recent years. Some people with lower scores than the average for any given school are admitted because they have other assets that add to the diversity of the school. In effect, this means that for a person with nothing outstanding to offer in terms of academic prowess or work experience, the score he or she needs to stand out from the crowd of applicants at a top ten B-school has to be 720 or more.


– What is the registration process for taking the test?

Signing up for the GMAT is the easiest part of your process. Here is a web URL:

Popular testing days fill up in advance, so if your schedule requires you to take the test on a certain day, be on top of it and sign up early. You need to pay the fee with a major credit card.

– Who conducts the Test and when is it held?

The test is conducted by Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) and it is held all year round (except weekends and public holidays) at specific test centers across the globe. A passport is the mandatory primary form of identification required.

– How many times can one take the Test? What should be ideal number of attempts?

There is technically no limit but we do not recommend taking the test more than three times. Taking the test many times may look bad. Plan on taking the test twice and reporting both scores (unless of course you do very well the first time). The admissions committee will take the best score of all your tests but will take a look at the history of the tests as well.

– Can I cancel my score, or have it not be reported?

You can cancel your score, but you must do so before you see it. Once you see it, it must be reported; you do not have the option of withholding it. We do not recommend canceling a score unless you were tested under adverse circumstances, like illness. If you do poorly and still report your score, it is not the end of the world. An improvement between two test scores may be highly regarded by your school of choice. If you cancel, the cancellation is still reported to the schools.

– Are there any rules regarding how often I can take the GMAT in a certain number of days?

You can take the GMAT five times every year (12-month period). Within that year, you must wait 31 days between tests, regardless of score cancellations.

– What is the GMAT Fee?

The fee GMAC charges for the test is $250; tax applies in some of the countries.

– Can I cancel or reschedule a GMAT appointment?

Yes, and quite a few people do – there is a $50 rescheduling fee if you reschedule more than 7 days out. You will lose the $250 deposit if you decide to reschedule less than 7 days out. You can also apply for a refund as long as your appointment is more than 7 days out. However, you will get only $80 back. In general, if you got cold feet a few days before the test, and feel that you need to reschedule, it may be worth going and taking the test since you won’t get any money back. Of course there are several theories about having a low score on your report, but more about that later.

– How long are the GMAT Scores valid for?
GMAT Scores are valid for 5 years. Some applicants take the test right after the undergrad (while the memory of math is still very fresh) and then apply after several years of work experience.
– How are the scores calculated on the Test?

The GMAT score depends upon the following three factors:

– The number of questions answered

– Difficulty level of the question answered

– Number of questions completed

– What is the check-in procedure?

You will need to show the test administrator valid ID. Please prepare two to three valid IDs such as a passport, driver’s license, or a major credit card with your photo. That way in case one expires or somehow cannot be found at the test center, you are still good to go.

The administrator will also take your photograph, signature, and take your fingerprint digitally. You will be asked to agree to the GMAT Examination Testing Rules & Agreement. When you sign for the paperwork, please slow down and make your signature very legible and correspond to the full name on your ID. Otherwise you may be asked to re-sign your name multiple times which might affect your mood for the test later on. If you refuse to comply with any of these procedures, you may be asked to leave and forfeit your fee.

– How long does the GMAT take? Are we given breaks?

The test takes around 4 hours. You are given two 5-minute breaks at scheduled intervals. It is important to not take more than 5 minutes during these breaks because you will be docked the amount of time you go over.

– What happens after the test?

After the test you will answer some questions about yourself and your plans for graduate school, and whether you would like to take part in various surveys or receive further information. Your answer choices to these questions may reflect information that you previously provided, earlier in the registration process.

– How do I send my scores to schools?

There are a few options for sending your scores. After you take the test, you will have the option of selecting 5 programs to send your scores to at no extra charge. Be careful, because this action cannot be undone and also be sure to select the correct program.

Later, you will have the chance to choose more schools to send your scores to. You will need to order an “Additional Score Report” (ASR). You can pay by credit card or check. Each additional school costs $28 USD.

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